There are clear discrepancies between men and women in the workforce that put women at a disadvantage. Worldwide trends of income inequality exist between men and women. In regions such as South Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Latin America and the Caribbean, women lack the protections of labor laws, further widening the wealth disparity.
Background Report: Economic Empowerment
Women’s Access to Careers in STEM Fields
Closing the gender-gap in the STEM field can help connect millions of young women to high-quality jobs and create a strong economy. Despite growing numbers of women receiving college degrees, they remain underrepresented within STEM fields. To tackle the disparity, there need to be opportunities for creating employment pathways for women.
Background Report: Women’s Access to Careers in STEM Fields
Criminal Accountability of United Nations Personnel on Missions
Between 2004 and 2016, nearly 2,000 allegations of sexual abuse and sexual exploitation committed by UN peacekeepers were reported. Holding peacekeepers accountable for their crimes falls under the jurisdiction of the Member State that sent them, which often results in miscommunication and lack of justice. The UN has no way to hold peacekeepers accountable for crimes they’ve committed, and their only available action is to dismiss them from service.
Background Report: Criminal Accountability of United Nations Personnel on Missions
Implications of State and Corporate Power Through Social Credit Systems
National Social Credit or Reputation Systems intend to standardize the assessment of citizens’ economic and social reputation. They are a form of mass surveillance that uses complex data analysis technology to create scores based on a range of things, including credit history, and behavior. It’s unclear whether these systems, comprised of various scores and blacklists, will be run by government agencies or if they will also involve private companies.
Background Report: Implications of State and Corporate Power Through Social Credit Systems
Countering the Evolving Global Threat Posed by Non-State Actors
“Non-state actor” (NSA) is a broad term referring to persons or entities who are not acting on behalf of a state. The term includes non-governmental organizations and civil society groups, but it also refers to violent NSAs, which encompasses transnational organized crime groups and terrorist organizations. Violent NSAs are now leveraging emerging technology and financing methods that enable them to incite or inflict violence in innovative ways. These emerging threats include drones, 3D printing, the dark web, and using social media for recruiting terrorist fighters and inciting violence.
Background Report: Countering the Evolving Global Threat Posed by Non-State Actors
Cyber Warfare Attacks on Politics and Public Perception
Cyber espionage and cyber warfare have differences that are critical to recognize and the truth lies in their motives. Espionage is intended to gather information. Warfare is intended to push one nation’s influence, beliefs, and power on another nation with loss and damage incurred through it. Cyber-attacks are no longer being used to merely conduct intelligence campaigns. They have escalated into causing chaos, influencing public opinion, and spreading political influence. Not unlike the Cold War that stretched through the latter half of the 20th century, many are worried that action and retribution could lead to escalation.
Background Report: Cyber Warfare Attacks on Politics and Public Perception
Addressing Mental Health in Humanitarian Crises
In the context of humanitarian crises, mental health is critical to recovering from disasters and the ability to rebuild. People with mental health problems are especially vulnerable in disaster and conflict settings but mental health is largely missing from the global public health agenda and remains one of the most under-funded areas of health care, especially in low-income countries.
Background Report: Mental Health in Humanitarian Crises
Impact of Climate Change on Human Health
Climate change influences human health and disease in numerous ways. Some existing health threats will intensify and new health threats will emerge. Health effects include increased respiratory and cardiovascular disease, injuries and premature deaths related to extreme weather events, changes in the prevalence and geographical distribution of food, water borne illnesses, infectious diseases, and threats to mental health. Not everyone is equally at risk, important considerations include age, economic resources, and location.
Background Report: Impact of Climate Change on Human Health