Countering the Evolving Global Threat Posed by Non-State Actors
“Non-state actor” (NSA) is a broad term referring to persons or entities who are not acting on behalf of a state. The term includes non-governmental organizations and civil society groups, but it also refers to violent NSAs, which encompasses transnational organized crime groups and terrorist organizations. Violent NSAs are now leveraging emerging technology and financing methods that enable them to incite or inflict violence in innovative ways. These emerging threats include drones, 3D printing, the dark web, and using social media for recruiting terrorist fighters and inciting violence.
Background Report: Countering the Evolving Global Threat Posed by Non-State Actors
Cyber Warfare Attacks on Politics and Public Perception
Cyber espionage and cyber warfare have differences that are critical to recognize and the truth lies in their motives. Espionage is intended to gather information. Warfare is intended to push one nation’s influence, beliefs, and power on another nation with loss and damage incurred through it. Cyber-attacks are no longer being used to merely conduct intelligence campaigns. They have escalated into causing chaos, influencing public opinion, and spreading political influence. Not unlike the Cold War that stretched through the latter half of the 20th century, many are worried that action and retribution could lead to escalation.
Background Report: Cyber Warfare Attacks on Politics and Public Perception
Description of the Council
Under the UN Charter, the Security Council has the responsibility of keeping international peace. It is the most powerful body of the United Nations; while other committees can only make recommendations, the Security Council makes decisions that countries have to follow. The Security Council meets throughout the year to address the most serious security issues facing the UN and the world.
The Council is made up of 15 nations: five are permanent members and the remaining 10 seats rotate every 2 years among the nations in the UN. The 5 permanent members are China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States. Each of these nations has “veto power,” which means that whenever any one of these countries votes “no” on a resolution, that resolution automatically fails. In order for a resolution to pass, all the permanent members must vote “yes.”
The Security Council may deal with international conflict in many ways. When fighting breaks out, the Council’s first goal is usually to call for a ceasefire, or an end to violence. It may also send peacekeeping forces to protect citizens and ensure that any UN decisions are carried out. The Security Council can use more forceful measures too, such as economic sanctions, which prevent a country from receiving money or trade. In the most serious situations, the Security Council can order the use of military force.